Computational prediction of the tolerance to amino-acid deletion in green-fluorescent protein

Abstract

Proteins evolve through two primary mechanisms: substitution, where mutations alter a pro- tein’s amino-acid sequence, and insertions and deletions (indels), where amino acids are either added to or removed from the sequence. Protein structure has been shown to influ- ence the rate at which substitutions accumulate across sites in proteins, but whether struc- ture similarly constrains the occurrence of indels has not been rigorously studied. Here, we investigate the extent to which structural properties known to covary with protein evolution- ary rates might also predict protein tolerance to indels. Specifically, we analyze a publicly available dataset of single—amino-acid deletion mutations in enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) to assess how well the functional effect of deletions can be predicted from protein structure. We find that weighted contact number (WCN), which measures how densely packed a residue is within the protein’s three-dimensional structure, provides the best single predictor for whether eGFP will tolerate a given deletion. We additionally find that using protein design to explicitly model deletions results in improved predictions of func- tional status when combined with other structural predictors. Our work suggests that struc- ture plays fundamental role in constraining deletions at sites in proteins, and further that similar biophysical constraints influence both substitutions and deletions. This study there- fore provides a solid foundation for future work to examine how protein structure influences tolerance of more complex indel events, such as insertions or large deletions.

Publication
PLOS ONE 12(4): e0164905