Intermediate divergence levels maximize the strength of structure–sequence correlations in enzymes and viral proteins

Abstract

Structural properties such as solvent accessibility and contact number predict site-specific sequence variability in many proteins. However, the strength and significance of these structure– sequence relationships vary widely among different proteins, with absolute correlation strengths rang- ing from 0 to 0.8. In particular, two recent works have made contradictory observations. Yeh et al. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 31:135–139, 2014) found that both relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and weighted contact number (WCN) are good predictors of sitewise evolutionary rate in enzymes, with WCN clearly out-performing RSA. Shahmoradi et al. (J. Mol. Evol. 79:130–142, 2014) considered these same predic- tors (as well as others) in viral proteins and found much weaker correlations and no clear advantage of WCN over RSA. Because these two studies had substantial methodological differences, however, a direct comparison of their results is not possible. Here, we reanalyze the datasets of the two studies with one uniform analysis pipeline, and we find that many apparent discrepancies between the two analyses can be attributed to the extent of sequence divergence in individual alignments. Specifically, the alignments of the enzyme dataset are much more diverged than those of the virus dataset, and proteins with higher divergence exhibit, on average, stronger structure–sequence correlations. However, the highest structure–sequence correlations are observed at intermediate divergence levels, where both highly conserved and highly variable sites are present in the same alignment.

Publication
Protein Science 8(11): e80635